came out on the First Fleet. James Grace was one of
them, the first Grace to arrive in Australia. Since he
died on Norfolk Island as a youth, I have adopted him…
Warwick Grace (# 6496.1)
born about 1771? Parents and birthplace (Middlesex?*)
at present uncertain.
1. OLD BAILEY
Sessions Text -
The Proceedings of the Old Bailey Ref: t17840114-40
theft: burglary, 14 Jan 1784.
Crime(s): theft: burglary, Punishment Type:
Guilty: convicted of a lesser offence; other trials on
14 Jan 1784. (Original Text minimally edited: See
original in Old Bailey records.)
JAMES GRACE (a
boy eleven years old), was indicted for burglariously
and feloniously breaking and entering the dwelling house
of Samuel Barton, at the hour of six in the night, on
the 22d of December last, and feloniously stealing a
pair of silk stockings, value 7 s. and yards of silk
ribbon, value 2 s. the property of the said Samuel.
I was fifteen
last Christmas. I am servant to Mr. Smart in
Oxford-street. I was in the street between six and
seven the 22d of December at night, and as I was passing
by, I saw the prisoner put his hand through a pane of
glass, and take out a pair of silk stockings. As he
passed by me I laid hold of him, and I had him for five
minutes before any body came. He threw down a pair of
stockings, and he was also taking out some ribbon, and
he could not get it all out. Then Mr. Burton came out
and took hold of him.
He said somebody
else took them.
COURT. In what
state was the glass of your window before this
Can you swear
that positively? Yes, I had looked at
them about half an hour before this happened and they
were all whole.
Might not the
whole glass be taken out and you not see it? I
generally walk about my shop and I saw the glass was
whole, I came out on the alarm, and took the prisoner
into my shop. The other young man had hold of him. I
found nothing upon him.
Prisoner. What age are you? Eleven.
I am a baker. I
was going up the road, and the other witness desired me
to pick up that pair of stockings, which I did. It was
two doors off, they were white silk stockings. I gave
them to the prosecutor.
hours of six and seven, as I was coming down Oxford-road
I saw this pane of glass broken. I looked into the
window, and this pair of stockings lay under the
window. I picked them up, and was going to carry them
in to the gentleman, and that gentleman and that boy
caught hold of me.
JURY to (George)
Windsor. Did you observe this window broke
before? No, I had not passed by.
COURT: GUILTY --
of stealing, but not of breaking and entering.
TRIED by the
first Middlesex Jury before Mr. Justice HEATH.
2. MOLLIE GILLEN Records:
JAMES GRACE was
born about 1771. Parents and birthplace (*Middlesex [?]
Ralph Clarke diary note) are unknown. He was listed in
one record as 'James Graves'. The information below uses
the correct surname, from p. 147 of 'The Founders of
Australia, A Biographical Dictionary of the First
Fleet', by Mollie Gillen.
(was) "a boy eleven years old" when he was charged with
breaking into a shop and stealing a pair of silk
stockings and ten yards of silk ribbon in Oxford
Street. He was seen to put his hand through a broken
window and take the goods out.
the Old Bailey to transportation for seven years on 14
January 1784 for theft of the goods (but not for
breaking and entering), the boy was sent from Newgate to
the Mercury transport on 30 March.
'He was among
those taken at Torbay by Helena after the mutinous
convicts had brought the ship into the harbour, and was
committed to gaol at Exeter on the 16th'.
Of the mutiny in
which James was embroiled the book records (page 435):
superintendent of the Thames hulks, Duncan Campbell,
received a warrant on 26 March 1784 naming fifty male
convicts to be delivered to the contractor George Moore
on board the Mercury transport (hitherto the Grand Duke
of Tuscany). On the same date, the keeper of Newgate
was instructed to send a further 105 convicts, male and
female, making a total of 185. A first batch of 90 from
Newgate went on board at 7 a.m. on 30 March, including
"upwards of twenty women and girls and two little boys
about twelve (James Grace and John Hudson)". With eight
from Maidstone, Kent, 22 from Oxford and one from
Dorchester, Dorset, the final total was only 179 on
board when the vessel (Mercury) sailed. Under Captain
Pamp's command (it left) from Gravesend on 2 April "for
Georgia" and from the Downs (inside the Goodwin Sands on
the east coast of Kent) on the 4th "for America".
'On 14 April the
captain of HMS Helena wrote to the Secretary of the Navy
to inform him that he had found the transport (Mercury)
at Torbay. (He reported) that about 60 of the convicts
had already escaped into Devon. 66 were taken by Helena
and would be delivered to Exeter as soon as possible.
They had risen on the crew when the ship was some 12
leagues beyond the Scilly Islands, but had had to put
back because of bad weather. Escaping convicts captured
by the naval vessel were lodged in Exeter gaols, and one
by one others, who had reached various points in Devon,
were brought in. On 24 May a special Commission tried
24 of the ringleaders and sentenced all to death, though
all were later reprieved and two acquitted. The
remainder were remanded to their former orders'.
'Remanded to his former orders by the Special Commission
on 24 May, James Grace was recorded on the Dunkirk hulk
in June as aged fourteen and "in general tolerably well
behaved but troublesome at times".
'On 11 March
1787, he was discharged to Friendship, where Ralph Clark
said he was eighteen and a shoemaker, born in
Middlesex'. He was transported on the Friendship to
Botany Bay in 1788.
Jackson, (James) Grace (went) to Norfolk Island by
Sirius on 4 March 1790. With Joseph Morrell
(Scarborough 1790), he went to Mount Pitt Path on 23
March 1791 "to See if the Birds were come in". The 23
(birds) they caught were confiscated by the patrol, but
they served to inform the community that the mutton
birds were indeed "come in", and men were sent every
night to collect as many as possible.
'At 1 July,
(James) Grace was subsisting (with) two persons on a
Queensborough lot, with 72 rods cleared. (He was)
sharing a nine month sow, provided by the government,
with Elizabeth Smith (Lady Juliana, aged 16… both London
convicts) and James Thomas 2nd (probably one of the two
First Fleet men of this name, both at Norfolk Island at
was settled on 12 acres at Morgan's Run, Queensborough,
in December. By 25 February 1792 he was working for
other settlers and off stores.
November. '(James Grace) died on at Norfolk Island'.
'The Founders of Australia' (pp 147/435) plus records
from the Old Bailey and Ralph Clark's Diary).
3. Some more information on James has since been
This is an
updated version for 'Colony', News Bulletin of the South
Coast Chapter December 2010 (editor, Jean Mortimer).
SAMUEL FREE and
ELIZABETH SMITH Summary:
Bailey, 1788 (aka Tree, Frear, Isreal).
'Salamander' (Third Fleet#).
Died June 3,
1819 (49 years), Sandy Bay, Tasmania.
(aka Fue, Free, Grace).
February 27, 1788.
'Lady Juliana' (Second Fleet#).
Island on 'Surprize' August 7, 1790.
Died June 22,
1850 (75 years) at Clarence Plains.
4. MARRIAGE: I. SCHAFFER and T. McKAY Records‡:
(7/3/2008: Copy, Norfolk Island Library):
(Fue/Free /Grace, ['Lady Juliana' #] married to SAMUEL
FREE ['Salamander''## 1791])…
Schaffer and Thelma McKay 'Exiled Three Times Over.
Profiles of Norfolk Islanders exiled in VDL.' p 58).
5. CHILDREN of Elizabeth Smith:
i) Dr CRAIG SMEE
Records*: (19/1/2010: from *Dr Smee Notes):
Elizabeth (born to) GRACE, JAMES (1788 / 'Friendship' /
Convict) // (de facto to) SMITH, ELIZABETH (1790 / 'Lady
Juliana' / Convict). Legend used: 'GS' 'd.' 'GS': that
is, 'Government Servant' (convict), 'de facto'
Craig Smee, 2009: 'Born in the English Colony of NSW' --
'List 6', re 'Norfolk Island'.)
A. To JAMES
GRACE? (Note *Dr Smee's paragraph above, plus Molly
'He [James] was
recorded as sharing a lot at Queensborough with an
Elizabeth Smith and a James Thomas, July 1 that year'
.) James died November 15, 1793.
SCHAFFER and T. McKAY Records‡:
(Smith) born on N.I. ‡13/12/1792. (N.B. *Dr. Smee has
'18/12/1792' in his record.)
married John Chipman, March 16, 1829. Died 1831.
6. NATASHA WALTERS Research†:
didn't get very far with Elizabeth Smith. I know she
came out on the 'Lady Juliana' and have read the book
"The Floating Brothel", about that ship. Elizabeth is
only mentioned once in the book.
Elizabeth's first child on Norfolk Island listed as
being the child of James (Grace): that is Elizabeth
Smith born 13/12/1792. She married John Chipman on
16/03/1829, had a son John William Chipman born
06.06.1830. Elizabeth Chipman died in 1831 in Tasmania.
'I doubt there is a descendant from the Chipman line. A
John Chipman died in 1831 age 22, at Clarence; not 100%
sure if this is Elizabeth's husband but it is a
possibility. He was buried 18.01.1831. There was also a
baby named John Chipman who was buried 04.05.1831, at
Clarence. His age was given as 0. As Elizabeth and
John's son was born on 6.6.1830, this could possibly be
their son. I am yet to find a marriage in Tasmania for
a John William Chipman. If both parents died when he
was a baby he more than likely didn't have much of a
Walters, descendant of Samuel Free – via Email,
B. ‡To SAMUEL FREE?
(Smith) born by December 30, 1797 on N.I.
Sarah married George Munday.
November 12, 1871 (74) at Clarence Plains.
Smee has '30/12/1797 Sarah (born to) Free, Samuel (1791
'Salamander' / Smith, Elizabeth).
(Free) born July 2, 1799 on N.I.
married i) James Joseph, October 23, 1815.
ii) Edward Maum,
May 8, 1832.
September 15, 1882 (82).
Smee has '2/7/1799 Mary (born to) Free, Samuel (1791
'Salamander' / Smith, Elizabeth).
(Free) born July 25, 1801 on N.I.
Susannah married Jacob Bellette, April 16, 1827.
(Free, Grace [?]) born November 1, 1804 on N.I.
(N.B. James [d.
1793] could not be his father. Elizabeth may have chosen
Grace for a family name).
May 8, 1839.
(Free) (born 1805-6?); baptised January 1, 1820 at
Thomas married Mary Ann Waterson, November 22, 1826.
September 5, 1861).
(†Natasha Walters email: 'My Free connections come
(Free) born c 1812, Hobart; baptised February 19, 1812.
May 10, 1830 (18).
HMS Guardian, Lady Juliana, Neptune, Scarborough and
Surprize plus Justinian (Stores).
Mary Ann, Matilda, Atlantic, Salamander, William and
Ann, Gorgon, Active, Queen (from Cork, Ireland)
Albemarle, Britannia and Admiral Barrington (all except
Queen departed from Plymouth).